More the energy we use, more we are contributing for the carbon dioxide emission. There by we are contributing for Global Warming. Indian Coal Consists Considerable amount of sulpher. Excessive use of coal in thermal power stations results in acid rains and other environmental damages, ultimately leading to Global Warming and Climate change.
Municipalities have the capability of saving a lot of energy even up to 40%. The saving initiatives are as follows.
Generally more than 30 minutes are wasted before sunset and after sunrise while switching on and off respectively. Instead of 11 hours rights are on for 12 hours. That means 9% of energy is being wasted without utilization. In case of some municipalities, it is much more than calculation.
Timers is the best way to avoid such type of problem. But, unfortunately the quality timers are not available in the market and energy tracking system costs more than saving. The onlyh alternative available is to deploy one person per 10 switches.
It is natural habit of the public representatives to use higher luminescence of lights unnecessarily.
If not only drains the wealth of the municipalities on capital cost but also a constant drain on the energy costs. Such anomalies in the lighting should be discontinued.
SOL: As per the standardization chart supplied by BEE, Urban administrators should discontinue use of higher wattage luminaries. (See page for table as annexure).
USE REPLACEMENT SAVING
400 250 37.5%
250 150 40%
150 70 53.33%
70 40 42.85%
Energy saving companies is assuring the saving of 45% of energy. They are using the energy tracking machines. It saves the energy in 3 ways.
It built timers switched off the lights following the sun synchronization. 10% saving is possible here.
Dimming the lights from 110 clock night, to its next level. Out of 11 hours 5 hours saving is possible in this way.
Voltage stabilization also saves a lot of energy. In the peak hours the voltage is less. But, in the off peak hours, the voltage goes up to 270 volts, instead of 220 volts. It consumes more energy. Energy tracker stabilizes the voltage and saves energy.
USE OF 36W TUBES OR 28 W ELECTRONIC CHOKES:
It saves about 4 watts for each tubes light. The Tube light fixture is available for almost same cost. Where as 28w electronic choked tube lights saves 50% of energy since 40w tube light consumes 52-watt energy. But the cost of the 28w electronic choke is about 350/-. The average life of choke is about 2 years. On cost benefit analysis. It saves about 578/- on energy saving (i.e less consumption).
PROVIDING OF MAIN LINES:
Due to lack of main lines, in most of the Municipalities, we hear and watch the glowing of lights for 24 hours. It wastes a lot of precious energy.
Even in absence of main lines also urban administrators can provide DP mains (Individual Switches). Even if municipal staff do not worry of switching on / off, Atleast a benevolent person takes care about it.
REMOVING LINE FAULTS:
During the rainy season, this problem occurs and staff could not trace out for 2 to 3 days. It wastes the energy many a time.
SOL: The loose electronic wires should be light up with the “fixers” available with electricity department. I did it during my tenure as Municipal Commissioner Nirmal, and such problems never occurred again. It also results in the improvement of confidence levels of municipality among the people.
Installation of MCBs:
1. Starting the switching off operation from central lighting saves a lot of energy. Staff should be trained in the technicalities to enable to save energy and for sustenance of reforms. Installation of MCBs instead of fuses would increase the speed of switching off of lights.
At the T – Junction Roads, higher wattage of lights are provided. But unfortunately the spread of light is less. During my tenure at Nirmal confirmed that 2 tube lights spread more light than 150 watt SV lamp.
USE OF CFL:
20 Watt CFL is available at the cost of 125/- to 150/-. Urban administrators can replace it in place of tube light of 40 watt. My observation at Eluru Municipal Corporation is that it has saved about 45% of energy. The only limitation is that it is suitable for roads with width equal or less than 20’.
USE OF LED:
Presently LED’s of different wattage are available in the market. Only a few companies are working on street light LED’s. Presently, S.V lamps, etc can be replaced with LED’s of 60 watt. The initial cost of LED is more. But when it is compared with the traditional lighting, the advantages are more.
SPACING OF STREET LIGHT POLES:
The space between the light poles is less than standards. In this case there is loss of valuable energy. The shorter distances can be adjusted through the angling and arrangement of lights on the poles. But when it is above the specified distances, we have to seriously think to change the poles. In case of central lighting, where distances are less, it is suggested to go for alternate lighting.
1. OLD MOTORS:
Due to depreciation, the average efficiency of motors generally it consume decrease after a period of 15 years. It consumes a lot of extra energy. Due to weak economic conditions, Municipalities would not be in apposition to purchase the new motors. New motors save a lot of energy. Adverse seasonal conditions funds or Non – plan grants provide opportunity for acquiring new motors.
Even where pumping possible through Gravity, there also municipalities use the pumping through electricity. Some Municipalities through small changes made it possible by gravity.
Another aspect is that establishment of High level Balancing Reservoirs would save a lot of energy in distribution, by avoiding the pumping. The frequency of leakages of also comes down with this.
3. HIGHER CAPACITY PUMPS:
On my frequent visits to pump house and filter bed, I use to watch over flow of water. On enquiry, I found that instead of using 5 H.P Pump they are using the 7.5 H.P pump and causing over flow. It not only wastes the water but also precious energy. Immediately I got the 5 H.P pump repaired and placed in position. It is possible in case of higher capacity motors.
4. FIXING OF CAPACITORS:
On fixing of capacitors to motors P.F. value of system improves and it also saves the energy. Many municipalities in A.P. have profited by installing capacitors. Even state Govt. instructed to install capacitors for agriculture motor in all the districts.
5. POWER BORES:
Power bores are constant drain source of energy and revenue of municipality without any realization. In some municipalities power bores are necessary during scarcity period. But time should be maintained for these power bores instead of indiscriminate using. The other disadvantage is that it affects the water table a lot. Atleast 10% of municipalities can save huge amounts by controlled use of power bores.
Technology is available to automatic stopping of motor after filing of tank. It do not allow the water and energy to become waste.
There are installed as back up when electricity is not available. There are neglected and servicing do not takes place for it years together for different reasons. In such cases it consumes a lot of diesel.
1 Liter of diesel release 2.45 Kg of CO2 where as 1 unit of power releases 1 Kg of CO2. So, it is better to maintain the batteries bank, preferably solar batteries, for shorter duration of backup.
In other way we can arrange for the 24*7 electricity supply, through the breakers.It avoids unnecessary burden on the water supply.