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Evaluation of initiatives of Suryapet Municipality

Evaluation of initiatives of Suryapet Municipality

IMPROVEMENT OF   LIVING  ENVIRONMENT

–    SURYAPET  MUNICIPALITY

PROF. A. MALLA REDDY

DEPUTY DIRECTOR

JULY, 2012

Regional Centre for Urban and Environmental Studies

(Sponsored by Ministry of Urban Development, Govt. of India)

Osmania University, Hyderabad – 500007

 

IMPROVING LIVING ENVIRONMENT   –    SURYAPET MUNICIPALITY

 Introduction

The urban centres in India are constantly increasing.  They are emerging as centres for the growth, as growth centres they are expected to organize the growing needs of the habitants.  The Government has formulated municipal laws to manage the urban local bodies ULBs.  The municipal laws prescribed the duties to be done obligatory and discretionary.  The ULBs are making efforts to meet the  duties.     The field observation show us that municipal needs are increasing and the resources are decreasing.    The municipalities are finding difficulties in meeting the basic needs of the dwellers.  The urban infrastructure deficiencies had negative effects,  the ecological balance was disturbed leading to global warming.  Government of India and State Governments planned and introduced schemes strengthening urban infrastructure, urban governance, slum improvement and urban poverty alleviation. The ULBs availed the schemes and benefited the respective dwellers.

The quality of living in a municipality is dependent on the living environment.  The living environment is broadly dependent on geological conditions, availability of water and electricity, efficiency of municipal management and people’s participation. The quality of environment differed from municipality to municipality based on the above mentioned factors. However, hostile is the living environment there is always a scope for improving the living environment.  The living environment can the improved by studying the local conditions, analyzing the conditions and introducing appropriate imputs.  The improvement of living environment is  also associated with conscious municipal officers,  elected representatives, Non Governmental Organization  (NGOs) and civil societies.

The progress achieved in improvement of living environment indicated that the conscious effort is made in selected municipalities and the progress is achieved in few municipalities.  The municipalities which have introduced the improvement of living environment focused on the selected activities.  There are very few municipalities which have made full-fledged attempt focusing on all the related activities in improving the environment, among these municipalities Suryapet Municipaality is one of them.  The detailed process of improving living environment in Suryapet Municipality is presented below.

About Suryapet Municipality

            Suryapet town is in Nalgonda District of Andhra Pradesh.  It is located on the National Highway No.9, in between Hyderabad City and Vijayawada City.  It is at a distance of 132 kms., from Hyderabad.  Suryapet hinter land is agriculture based, the town has become a centre for marketing and processing agricultural produce.    It has floating population from the neighbouring revenue divisions from Nalgonda, Warangal, and Khammam Districts of Andhra Pradesh.  It has emerged as a commercial and educational centre in the region.  The municipality was formed in 1952, gradually it was upgraded to grade I municipality.  The population was 1.05 lakhs as per the 2011 census. The municipality consists of 34 municipal wards,  having  269 km of roads and 340.5 kms., of drains. The majority of wards have slums with poor housing structures.    The town attracted un-skill labour/below poverty people, they settled in 50 slums.  The urban poor women in Below Poverty Line BPL category families are organized into the Self Helf Groups SHGs, 870 SHGs are formed, the SHGs are integrated into 87 Slum Level Federations SLFs.

Improving Living Environment

The improvement of living environment is a sensitive activity.  The Suryapet Municipality approached the improvement of living environment in a planned method.  The Municipal Commissioner understood the municipal problems of the Suryapet Municipality and made efforts to find solutions to the identified problems.  The main problems of Suryapet Municipality are viz., extreme hot condition shortage of financial resources, shortage of water supply, stagnation of sullage in drainage, mosquito problems, use of plastic products, poor solid waste management and migration of poor unskilled labour.  These problems arised due to multiple issues viz., lack of plantation, depletion of water source, increase in below poverty line families, lack of basic services in wards, formation of slums, shortage of electricity, usage of very heavy voltage lights,  irregular street lighting and payment of heavy electrical bills,  problems of electricity in pumping water,  piling plastic waste in the streets and  worming  environment,  The Municipal Commissioner analysed the local problems, placed the issues before municipal council and initiated the necessary actions.  The activities proposed in improvement of living environment needed the attention and support of the municipal council, civil societies, non-governmental organizations, community based organizations, resident welfare associations and the citizens.  The municipality elicited their support in improvement of the environment.

The process of improvement of living environment in Suryapet Municipality  has  focused on the following selected areas  viz., improving greenery through plantation,  water body conservation, introduction of energy saving, taping solar energy, controlling use of plastic, scientific method of solid waste collection and disposal system, bio-iradication of mosquitoes, pro-poor water supply policy, improving health of poor by introducing kitchen gardens, involvement of civic societies in community welfare activities.  The following paras explain the details of the initiatives  made by Suryapet Municipality, process adopted in the activities, achievement made in the activities, the role of activities in improving the environment and the impact of the activities.

PLANTATION

The tree plantation is one of the activity initiated to improve the living environment.  Sri Prakash Gandhuri Ward No.11, Councillor, Suryapet expressed that the Suryapet is one of the hottest place in Andhra Pradesh.  He expressed that the people of Suryapet have borne the brunt of heat for a long time and  all of us have the responsibilities  to control heat.  The road widening, road development activities, diversion of National Highway necessitated cutting down the available trees and have further deepened the crises.  One of the activity which needs attention to control heat is tree plantation.  He felt the tree plantation received least attention in Suryapet for the past seven years.   The elected representatives viz., MLA and Municipal Councillors have taken green rally, through the rally message was sent to the people, people are convinced for tree plantation.    The Municipal Commissioner has shown concern and introduced activities from 2010 onwards to bring changes in the living environment.  He expressed that as a councillor he had involved in all the activities initiated for controlling temperature in Suryapet Municipality.

The municipality responded to the call given by Chief Conservator of Forest, Govt. of Andhra Pradesh to plant “Two Million Trees/Plantation in one Single Day” on 09-7-2011 to celebrate Vanamahostava Day.  The targets were fixed to the districts, the District Collectors fixed target for Suryapet Municipality. The Municipal Commissioner sensitized the Councillors about the government initiative and issued the notices to call the owners/managers of  education institutions, organizations, factories, new agricultural market, individual with large compounds and explained the need for plantation on a large scale to bring changes in the climate and contribute for reducing the global warning.  The owners/managers responded positively to the municipality call and decided to follow municipal programme on plantation.  The municipality pooled plants viz., Teak, Neem, Peppal, Equiliptus and other shade bearing trees distributed them to the agencies and institutions, they received the plants and planted them in their premises, see Fig. No. 1 Teak plantation, Fig. No.2 Equiliptus plantation, Fig. No. 3 Poppaiah Plants

 

Fig. No. 1. Teak  Plantation                                             Fig. No.2.  Equiliptus Plantation

The municipality has taken interest and celebrated the Ozone Day, World Environmental Day, Vanamahostavam day. During these celebrations municipality emphasized the role of institutions and citizens, influenced the people to take up preventive measures and organize plantations.  The municipality has understand its role and decided to pool plants and make them available to different category of people.  It has  started nursery at its compost yard for the plants of high utility viz., Alvera, Voma, Tulasi etc. for distribution among the people.

The municipality brought awareness on tree plantation in the Self Help Groups SHG meetings covering almost all the BPL families.  The massage of tree plantation reached all the households in Suryapet Municipality. The municipality used the opportunity and pooled plants Amla, Guva, Banana, Drumstick, Gorantaku, Poppai, Jamunu etc., from Kadiyam nursery distributed them to the BPL families.    The municipality focused on Drumstick plants to minimise the fluoride effects from water, now the municipality is also advocating use of Amla which also neutralizes the fluoride effects.  The municipality initiated “Intintiki Amla”, programme, under this programme municipality planned to distribute Amla trees through schools. Amla is rich source of vitamin C  and minarals.   The  municipality issued 500 plants each to four schools and requested them to issue plants to their students and record their names.  The BPL families in SHGs also benefited under the programme.    These plants added  greenery in the municipality and  yielded high value products which can improve vitamins and nutrition.

The District Collector fixed 25000 plants target for the year 2011-12.  The municipality felt that the target is not in commensurate with the number of wards and the large catchment area.  The municipality visualized to meet the local need, made all kinds efforts.   The municipality approached the district collector, pooled plants from different sources viz., government departments,  private doners, nursaries and also encouraged organizations viz., sub jail Suryapet,  Sudhakar Pipes company to raise nursaries, these organizations responded and raised nursaries produced plants for distribution.

The Municipal Chairman has taken special interest in planning and executing the plantation activities. The elected representatives followed the municipal plantation programme. The municipality also issued a paper advertisement calling peoples participation in the tree plantation through contribution of trees and planting trees. NGOs viz., Vrusha Yagnam, Council for Green Revolution, Lions Club, Vasavi Club, Juniors Club have responded. The municipality sort the approval of the budget from Council/Special  Officer and purchased implements for digging pits for tree plantation.  The municipality incurred transport charges for transporting plants to Suryapet. The municipality assigned duties to sanitary inspector, sanitary jawans, community organisers, project persons, water supply workers and students in plant distribution. The number of trees planted are 1,18,000, the number increased than the target and the plantation programme progressed.

Sai Temple Trust, Suryapet  closely associated with a tree plantation in Suryapet.  Chairman of the trust approached the Municipal Commissioner and expressed his view that every house in Suryapet should be planted with a tree.   The municipality agreed to the concept and pooled trees and delivered to the trust, the trust distributed them along with its plants to the visitors and appealed  them to  take care of the plants and it will take care of people.  This activity gained popularity, number of doners increased and the number of plants distributed increased during rainy season.  The activity become popular, it turned out to become a green bank, see Fig. No.4 Flower Plants in Shirdi Temple.

 

Fig. No. 4 – Plants Shirdi Temple                                         Fig. No. 3 – Papaya plants

The observation of wards in Suryapet Municipality show us the tree plantation is covered in all the wards, the houses have atleast one tree. The trees need constant care to sustain them, the trees planted in the house are taken care by the house owners, trees planted by the institution are taken care by themselves, trees planted on the roads are taken care by the people residing in the lanes, there are very few trees left out uncared.   The greenery is constantly increasing, among the wards the  ward No.22 Indiramma Colony received attention, see Fig. No. 5 and Fig. No. 6.  The lanes in the colony show us they have shade trees, the houses have fruit and vegetable bearing plants,  the plants are growing, in next few years the colony will be fully covered with greenery and fruits.

 

Fig. No.5 Plants in Streets (Indiramma Colony)                     Fig. No.6 Plants in Streets

It was a responsibility based plantation people have taken the responsibility of planting trees and sustaining them.  The plantation brought changes in the living environment. The Commissioner received best municipal commissioner award  for tree plantation (green leaf award)  for two years 2010 and 2011.   This is an acknowledgement of successful tree plantation   in Suryapet Municipality.

LAKE WATER CONSERVATION

The water is most important component of human habitation. The growth of agriculture, industrialization and populations has increased the demand for water.   The efforts have been made to store water by building dams and reservoirs and draw water from wells to meet the need.   Some countries have also tried to recycle and desalinate  (remove salts) water to meet the water needs.   The water conservation has become the need of the day.  The most important step in the direction of finding solutions to the issues of water is conservation because it is the right thing to do.   The benefits of conserving water, It saves water, it saves expenditure on water, reduction in interior water use, cuts waste water flows, especially overflowing of gutters which contaminates the environment.  The environmental benefits it improve the eco-system and habitat protection, water conservation helps in improving the quality of drinking water.

The past decade record shows that the Suryapet Municipality has faced shortage of rainfall. The Suryapet has three lakes viz., Saddal Cheruvu, Choudary Cheruvu and Pulla Reddy Cheruvu with large water bodies, the three lakes are in contiguous.  The water flows from one lakes to the other lake in the downstream.  The lakes collected less water, the lakes dried. The dry lakes were misused, encroached, sullage water entered into the lake beds.  The polluted  water has seeped into the ground. The lakes were neglected, the water taple has gone down.  The area has become dry, the open  well dried up, the dry areas contributed to increase in warming the surrounding of Suryapet.   The ground water has fluoride content, the shortage of ground water  has further  increased the intensity of fluoride.  Due to shortage of water people used the ground water for multiple purposes viz., domestic and non domestic uses and suffered from the harmful effects.   The water problem mounted in Suryapet Municipality during the summer  period. The municipality received multiple calls and representations and the   municipality always found  difficulty to meet water needs of the  growing population.

The Municipality planned to solve the water problems  one of the area needed intervention was lake water conservation.  The municipality envisaged  steps to store rain water  in the three lakes and conserve the lake water.  The municipality prepared plans to build bund on the sides, to evict encroachment, build drain  along the bund  to divert the sullage water. The projects were designed mainly to protect the lakes from abuse, avoid encroachment, avoid sullage flow into the lake.  The plan facilitates  additional road space for movement of traffic and additional drains for easy movement of sullage and conserve lake water.  The municipality submitted proposals under the UIDSSMT scheme to the Ministry of Urban Development, Govt. of India, New Delhi to converse the three lakes mentioned above.  The plans sanctioned, the lake works are executed, the efforts made for one of the lake viz., Saddal Cheruvu has been presented below  :

CASE – I  :  Saddal Cheruvu  :

Saddal Cheruvu is located adjoining in Ward II in Suryapet Municipality.  The lake water surroundings south side of the municipality abutting the National High Way No.9.  The lake use to   supplly water to the Suryapet Municipality.  The rainfall reduced, less water stored in the lake, lake was later used for storing the Musi Project water for drinking water purposes to Suryapet Municiality.  The catchment of the lake is disturbed by construction of new houses, musi water source was not a dependable source, in these circumstances the lake remained dry for many months in  a year.    The small quantity of water collected could not be used for drinking purpose due to flow of sullage from new houses in the catchment into the lake, the lake used for open defection,  gradually the lake is abused and encroached.

Suryapet Municipality planned for improving the Saddal Cheruvu and conserve water.  The plan aimed at diverting sullage water, sullage treatment plant, arresting encroachment, improvement of ground water, plantation of trees in the catchment area, facilitate conserving the lake water and improve the flora and founa in the vicinity.   The project was sanctioned , Public Health Department, Govt. of Andhra Pradesh executed the sanctioned project.  As a first step in the execution municipality tackled encroachment, it approached the district revenue administration to remove encroachments.  The district officer and the municipal chairman and council members  together helped the municipality to remove encroachments  and peacefully resettled the dwellers.

The Public Health Department executed the bund in 2011-12, the bund length was 1.2 kms., width 25 feet, see Fig. No. 7,  Saddal Cheruvu lake with water in the month of May, 2012 see Fig. No.8,   The bund is built and  opened for traffic see Fig. No. 9, drain along the bund  1.2 kms., see Fig. No. 10.  The new drain is connected with  the drains coming from the catchment area and the  by lanes.   The municipality built public toilet adjoining the bund to control open deification, it planted trees along side of the bund.  The municipality surveyed the catchment of the  Saddal  lake, identified institutions pursued them to  plant trees.  The institutions responded and  planted, Edga Premises 10,000 trees, Sneha Nilayam  2,000 trees, Aravindaksa College 2,000 trees and Loyala College 2000 trees,  viz., Teak, Neam, Peapal, Equiliptus, Badam and Mango etc.  The municipality convinced the dwellers in the neighbouring localities to plant more trees and improve greenery, the dwellers responded and planted trees.   The water

Fig. No. 7 –  Lake Bund                                               Fig. No. 8  –  Saddal Cheruvu Lake

conservation effects made by Suryapet Municipality received support from the elected representatives, NGOs and people.

The observation of the Saddal Cheruvu lake indicated that the plantation in the catchment helped to increase the rainfall.  The lake is naturally filling with the rain water from catchment, the water is stored throughout the year. The lake no more required  water filling from Musi Project.  The bund work is giving new look to the lake, the new drain along the bund is carrying away the sullage, preventing the sullage flow into the lake.

 

 

     Fig. No. 9 – Bund used for traffic                             Fig. No. 10  –  Drain along  Lake Bund

The impact of the programme could be seen in multiple areas viz., water quantity increased, the lake is full, water is conserved, the quality of the lake water improved.  The water is neat, constant storage of water in the lake lead to growth of ground water taple.  The storage of neat water  improved the quality of ground water.  The lake observations  in the month of May, 2012 show  us that the Lake water is conserved, the conservation facilitated water prevalence in the lake throughout the year.  The record indicates that all the 176 bores dried  in the month of December, 2010, in the year 2011  bores 78 dried,  whereas in May, 2012  only three bores dried in peripheral areas.  The field observation indicate that the water in the bores are prevalent throughout the summer.   The increased ground water diluted the fluoride and the fluoride contents reduced to the permissible level.   The impacts of fluoride effects on the human body reduced.  The test of bore water around the Saddal Cheruvu indicated that the E Coli  is in permissible quantity, it is  not detectable in some of the bores.

The physical conditions  of the lake indicated the presence of moisture in the soil facilitated speedy – growth the plants. The water body beatified the surroundings.  The ecological balance which was disturbed  for a long time in Suryapet  is slowly  balancing by the Saddal Cheruvu Lake water conservation.   The water body in the lake controlled heat waves  and contributed for reducing heat during summer.  The people of Suryapet felt the pleasant  whether.   The lake water given the growth of Flora and founa in the vicinity.  The lake conditions facilitated growth of varieties of fish and new acquatic birds.  The natural conditions facilitated increase in  sparrows and other birds, honeybees etc.  The above  results are scientifically proved.

The Suryapet Municipality is now planning to beautify the lake and bund by introducing decorative plants, arranging railing and sitting benches along the bund etc.  These facilities will further add recreational facilities  in Suryapet Municipality.  The Municipality is mobilizing the doners to contribute material for recreational purposes, people are responding to the proposals.  The municipality planed to approach Andhra Pradesh Tourism to introduce  boating facilities in the lake to future upgrade the recreational facilities.  The water body with recreational facilities shall upgrade the quality of urban living in Suryapet.

PRO-POOR POLICY FOR WATER SUPPLY

There is need for supplying the potable water as per the national standard.    The government  has been supporting the potable water supply scheme in the ULB.   The  ULBs have been following the national guideline to supply portable water.  Every house needs water tap, the economic reasons compelled the poor households in the ULBs to remain out of the water supply coverage.  The poor are drawing water from the Public Stand Post PSP and bore wells.  The poor are not able to draw necessary water, they spend time, money to collect water and are compelled to live in distress condition.  The poor households should get  water at an affordable price.  The quality of water  will ensure more  productive days of work,  reduces poverty reduces the disparities among the people, saves time and energy.  The house with a tap is always a priority for the poor dwellers.

Suryapet Municipality has faced shortage of water supply, it has planed and prepared water supply proposal under the Urban Infrastructure Development Scheme for Small and Medium Towns UIDSSMT.  Ministry of Urban Development, Govt. of India, New Delhi.  The plan was submitted and the Ministry sanctioned Rs. 36 crores to the UIDSSMT water supply scheme.  The UIDSSMT agreement specified that adequate number of connections should be issued to the users.  The target for water connection in  Suryapet was 5000,  this necessitated the municipality to give water connections to all the poor households.   The Suryapet Municipality received the amount and executed the water supply scheme.  The Suryapet Municipality water supply was 600 LPCD water, after the completion of the UIDSSMT scheme   municipality is supplying 14 MGD to 12000 connections. The scheme extended pipeline to all the lanes in municipal wards   covering backward localities, slums and all  the lanes inhabited by urban poor.  The water lanes  facilitated  to issue new water connections.

The Commissioner & Director, Municipal Administration (CDMA) Govt. of Andhra Pradesh has accorded high priority for issuing more tap connections in a ULBs.  The issual of more number of  taps is cost benefit, the investment made  and water resource can be extended to  more people.  On the other hand stoppage or neglect of issuing water connections people may take unauthorized water tap connections.  These factors lead to theft/leakage of water and causing reduction in the income to the municipality.  The CDMA directed ULBs to  issue water connection to BPL family at Rs.1200/- per connection in the  2004-05.  The CDMA further instructed the ULBs to issue water connections  to BPL families at Rs.200 per tap connection from the year 2008-09 on words.     

Suryapet Municipality followed the government guidelines on pro poor policy for water supply.  The municipality propagated the solgan that you have a right to own a municipal tap and municipality also offered to issue tap even in the case where the house is not on the applicant name.  The municipality strictly followed the government norm of sanctioning a municipal  tap connection for Rs.200/-.  The municipality sensitized the poor household for the need for municipal tap and offered tap on concessional rate.    The Municipal Commissioner has explained the 87 Slum Level Federations SLF members about the concessional rate for municipal tap, and convinced them to take municipal tap connection.  This approach sent message to all the urban poor in 870 SHGs to avail tap connection.  The municipality formed special teams to mobilize the tap connection applicants.  The municipality is normally taking 15 days time to give sanction for tap connections, as a special case it  has sanctioned them in four or five days.

The municipality has made a special arrangement to sanction municipal tap connections in Indiramma Colony.  The municipality fixed a date 20-12-2010 and called all the households of the colony to take individual   tap connection.  The municipal team consisting of the Municipal Commissioner, Municipal Engineer, Accounts Officer, Public Health Staff etc., assembled at the Indiramma colony received applications and expedited the water tap sanctions.  The municipality called licensed plumbers for drawing the map of taps, masons and plumbers to dig and lay water pipeline from mainline to the house and fix tap.  The residents approached the municipal staff with their documents, got the help of licensed plumbers and masons team to fix tap in the house.  On a single day municipality received 350 applications and issued sanctions to all the applications in the colony. The applicants paid Rs.200/- fee for tap connection. The municipality helped the applicants to get a tap connection at a lowest cost.  This has given the confidence to the urban poor that the municipality is helping them in extending essential services.

The number of water connections increased constantly, the 14 MLD of water is supplied to 13885 connections in Suryapet Municipality, the per capita cost reduced and the revenue is increased.  The municipality issuing water connections to meet the  UIDSSMT scheme target. The monthly 100/- is charged for water connection for the general category  people, Rs.80/- is charged for the BPL category people.  If the amount is paid yearly once at a time the municipality is charging Rs.60/- per month to the  BPL family.  The water is equally distributed among the rich and the poor households.  The municipality is able to reduce the monthly tariff due to energy saving, and other measures.  The Suryapet Municipality is the first municipality in Andhra Pradesh to reduce the water tariff to the BPL family by Rs.20/-.  The number of tap connection to poor households increased and the dependents on public stand post PSPs reduced.  The municipality gradually disconnecting the PSPs to plug the water leakages and increase the  quantity of water supply to the tap connections.

The Municipal Chairperson  and the Council appreciated the effort made by the municipal commissioner  in increasing the number of tap connections to the poor.  The water facility to the poor increased revenue to the municipality, saved time of the poor families, quality water supplied, consumption of quality water reduced the water borne ailments and improved the health of the women and children in urban poor families.  The case of the beneficiary  Ms. Jothi who received tap connection in pro poor policy for water supply is explained in details in Case I.

CASE – I  :   Ms. Jothi

Ms. Jothi, Age 39 years,  hospital worker, resident of H.Ho.469, Indiramma Colony, Ward No.22, Suryapet Municipality.  Her family size is four, her house had latrine and drain connection.

She has taken municipal water tap connection, before the tap connection she used to draw water from the open well in the neighbourhood.  She has taken municipal water connection for collecting the potable and safe water.  She expressed that the municipality helped her in taking water connection.  She has taken the help of the licenced plumber and prepared the drawing for water tap connection, submitted the application with Rs.200/- to the municipality.  She  incurred Rs2000/- to purchase water pipes, taps, made payment to the licensed plumber and mason to lay pipes and  installed water tap in her house.  She expressed that the new water tap connection in the house facilitated her to collect the required water in 15 minutes.  She is regularly paying Rs.80/- toward monthly charges to the municipality.   During the summer the  quantity water supply reduced, in normal months water quantity is sufficient.  The water facility had positive impact, she is able to save time, energy and receive the safe water.  She acknowledged that the water facility improved the convenience in the house, and the health of her family members.

ENERGY SAVING

            Energy saving is one of the  initiative  introduced for improving the living environment in Suryapet Municipality.  The municipality used  electricity for water pumping, street lighting and office purposes.  The Suryapet  is  in a hot zone,  increasingly use of electricity is further warming the environment.  The municipality had  difficulties in using the electricity regularly and had financial difficulties in monthly paying charges.   The municipality initiated energy saving, the energy saving aimed  to improve the financial and physical conditions  in the municipality.

The Commissioner & Director of Municipal Administration, Govt. of Andhra Pradesh issued instructions in 2005 to adopt the suggested energy reforms in the respective ULBs.  The ULBs are following the government instructions, based on the instructions Municipal Commissioner initiated activities.  The Municipal Commissioner deeply analyzed the existing conditions in Suryapet and identified areas to introduce changes and save energy.  The first step in the energy saving process was  identified the municipal staff and trained them in energy saving.  The main activities focused in energy saving are (1) streamlining the electricity use, (2) timely on and half of street light system,  (3) Replacing   tubes light (4) using electronic chock for tube lights, (5) using capacitors for electricity pump.  The Commissioner placed the proposal  before municipal council, the council sanctioned the proposals.  The municipality purchased capacitors from the market at Rs.4500 to 7500 and installed to the pumping motors.  The Commissioner deployed staff to monitor the capacitors, the Power Factor value is maintained, the amps consumption is constantly observed.  The human resource is also regularly monitored to maintain a proper record of consumption of electricity units.  The following activities are introduced to save energy in water supply and street lighting system in Suryapet Municipality.

Energy saving initiatives in Suryapet Municipality

Water Supply

            The municipality introduced following activities (1) fixing capacitors, (2) direct pumping, (3) gravity and (4) discontinuing power bores

1)      Fixing of Capacitors  :

  • Fixing of capacitors to motors, P.F. value of system improved
  • Saved the energy about 32%  and money is saved through this initiative.

2)      Direct Pumping  :

  • Proposed to do in single stage by installing the higher stage pumps, i.e., 125 H.P.V.T. Pumps.
  • It  further saves a lot of energy and money.

3)  Gravity :

  • Introduced proposal for gravity distribution of water and save energy.
  • The same is expedited and started, leading to saving energy and money.

4) Power Bores :

  • Power bores are constant drain of energy and revenue
  • Municipality discontinued the power bore wells and saved a lot of energy and money.

Street Light

The municipality planned for total replacement  of the heavy lights with Light Emitting Diode LED lights, the LED lighting gives more light with less energy.  The Suryapet Municipality submitted proposal for  1.04 crore to New and Rechargeable Energy Development Corporation NEDCO Hyderabad for implementation of Energy Efficient Lighting Devices and LED Street Lighting systems in place of conventional lights    under 50 : 50 sharing basis.   The details are as follows :

# Description of existing Lamps Description of proposed EELDs/LED street lights Nos. Unit Cost in Rs. Total amount in Rs. (lakhs)
1. Metal Halide Lamps 250W LED 90W    185   12000/-      22.20
Metal Halide Lamps 400W Induction Lamps 200W     11    9000/-        0.99
T8 FTLs 48W LED 20W 2571   2600/-      66.84
T8 FTLs 48W T5 FTLs with tube 1000   1000/-      10.00
Installation and other charges      04.13
Total  :    104.16

The NEDCO approved the project and sanctioned Rs.50,000/- for the project and the remaining amount to be borne by the municipality.  The sanctioned   works are initiated.

The municipality share amount was pooled from the following sources.

# Name of the Scheme Amount

( in lakhs)

         Remarks
1. BRGF   9.00 Already sanctioned
2. Municipal General Funds 12.50 Already sanctioned by Municipal Council
3. 13th Finance Grants 2012-13 28.50 Presently proposal is

Submitted

                              Total  : 50.00

            The following activities are introduced in street light system to save energy viz. (1) sun synchronization, (2) Standardization, (3) Electronic Chocks, (4) 3rd wire for street light poles.

1)      Sun Synchronization :

  • Adjusting street light according to the sun light
  • Dimming street light after reduction of traffic movement

2)      Standardization  :

  • SOL :  As per the standardization chart supplied by Beareau of Energy Effeciancy BEE,  municipality discontinued use of higher wattage luminaries.
  • Alternate lighting of higher wattage of lights installed and saved a lot of energy and money.

3)      Use of 36 W Tubes or 28 W Electronic Chokes :

  • Suryapet Municipality has purchased only 36 watt tube lights.
  • It saves about 4 watts for each tube light.

4)  Installation of 3rd Wire :

  • Municipality has dismissed all direct street light connections and installed 3rdwire for street lights with the help of electricity department,  with this arrangement more energy is saved daily.

5)  LED Lighting :

  • Action is taken for establishing LED lighting under 13th Finance Commission Grants
  • The LED lights are saving the energy.

NEDCAP helped Suryapet  to take up above works as per the sanctioned project.

The municipality strictly monitored the operation of on and off of the street light system, municipality daily used to stop street light at 6.00 am, now they are stopped  at 5.30 am i.e. half an hour before the old timing and saved energy.  The people also cooperated to the changed time of street lighting and the alternative lighting system. The Municipal Commissioner indicated the following :

  • The changes are brought  by training the staff and moral boosting  the staff to save energy in the daily operation.
  • The municipality is convincing private sector to save energy.
  • Impact of saving energy is seen in less consumption of electricity and saving financial resources for the municipality.

The municipality previously paid up to Rs. 15 lakhs monthly  for water pumping, after introducing changes municipality is now paying monthly up to Rs.10  lakhs, the savings was monthly 32%  to 37% on water supply.  The saving on street light is Rs.1.5 lakhs, the total saving on energy is between Rs. four lakhs to  Rs. five lakhs monthly.  The Suryapet Municipality is one of the ULB in the state to pay monthly electricity charges without delay, there are no arrears to be paid to the electricity supplying company i.e.,  Central Power Distribution Company CPDCL.   It has avoided penalties and maintained good relationship with the CPDCL.  The municipal commissioner expressed that the stress which they faced from the CPDCL has reduced, there is lot of relief to the municipal staff.  The municipality is planning to introduce the Energy Tracking System ETS.  In the ETS system each tube light has a chip, it is controlled through computer from a central place.  The on and off can be operated timely, sun synchronization and dimming can be made through ETS to save more energy.  The proposal indicates energy can be saved up to 60%.   By using the proposed solar energy for all the energy uses the electricity from CPDCL can be further reduced.  The impact of saving energy is seen in less consumption of electricity and saving financial resources for the municipality.  The saved amount is used for prompt payment of municipal staff salaries and initiating the development activities.

SOLAR  ENERGY INITIATIVES

What is  solar energy

Solar energy is the energy received from the sun that sustains life on earth.  It is             also an economical source of energy because it is freely available, after years of research                                                 it is possible to harness solar energy.  Some of the modern Solar Energy systems consist of magnifying glasses along with pipes filled with fluid.  These systems consist of frontal glass that focuses the sun’s light,  the energy drawn from this source can be used for multiple purposes.   The solar energy can  save  large amount of gas/energy and financial resources.

Solar Energy Facts

Solar Energy is already being successfully used in residential and industrial settings for cooking, heating, cooling, lighting, space technology, and for communications among other uses.  With fossil fuels making major impact on the environment and raisisng issues of pollution and global warming, solar energy has increased in its importance to industries and homes.  While the reserves of fossil fuels are restricted, there is no limitation to the availability of solar energy. With improvement in solar energy technology and the increase in prices of fossil fuel, solar energy is gradually becoming more and more affordable.  The basic components required in the solar power system consists of a solar panel, battery for storing all the energy gathered during daytime.  The energy policy of India is focusing on developing alternative sources of energy  particularly nuclear, solar and wind energy. The government has allocated Rs.10 billion towards the Jawaharlal Nehru National Solar Mission and the establishment of clean energy fund.  The Ministry of New and Renewable Energy (MNRE) Govt. of India, New Delhi main objectives are to generate electricity through renewable sources like wind and solar on decentralized manner.   The MNRE New Delhi encouraging ULBs to apply for solar city project for sanction of funds.

Solar Proposal

There are few ULBs which have planned to tap solar energy to meet energy needs, Suryapet Municipality in Andhra Pradesh State is one of them.  Suryapet Municipality solar energy initiatives are explained below. Suryapet Municipality is using electricity power for multiple activities viz., (1) Water pumping from head source (2) street lighting (3) office purposes etc.  The electricity supply is frequently interrupted, the water supply and street light services are effected due to break in electricity supply.  The municipality planned to tap the solar energy and reduce the use of the electricity.  The use of solar energy fights against climate change and global warming.  It also reduces the electricity charges and facilitates timely release of the municipal services viz., water supply and street lights.

The municipality planned for solar city, the special officer of the municipality called for meeting of  all political parties,  NGOs, press representatives in Suryapet and explained the aims and objectives of the solar energy initiatives for Suryapet Municipality.   Suryapet Municipality  prepared a solar city project  proposal for Rs. 5.00 crores. The project cost is shared between the Suryapet Municipality Rs. 2.5 crores and Govt. of India Rs. 2.5 crores.  The project proposal contains change of street lighting system, change of electrical municipal water pumping motors and introducing alternative utilities for pumping and use the energy for municipal vehicles movement.  All parties in Suryapet agreed and  expressed willingness for the project, the local MLA issued letter of appreciation.  The municipality submited the solar city  project to the  MNRE, New Delhi, the proposal is under consideration.  The details of the Suryapet solar city proposal is given below.

Solar City Proposal – Suryapet Municipality

Activity Plan and Budget

Amount sought from MNRE as per  the provision of scheme              2.50 Crores
Amount to be contributed by proposing agency 2.50 Crores
Action Plan for utilization of funds 1.Change of pumping motors

2.Change of street lighting

3.Vehicles

4.Offfice

Street light  florescent lamps converted to 12 watts Solar LED lamps

Solar utilities

Time period for preparation and submission of Master Plan to the Ministry after sanctioning of the proposal 1 month
Any other information

The Suryapet Municipality share of Rs.2.5 crores is pooled with solar utilities/material worth of the share amount as per the project proposal.  The municipality initiated awareness programmes on use of solar energy to the municipal councillors, non-governmental organizations and citizens. The municipality invited the leaders in solar activity i.e.,  ANDRO MEDA Hyderabad and New and Renewable Energy Corporation of Andhra Pradesh, (NREDCAP) Hyderabad to propagate and demonstrate the solar energy use and sell  solar products in Suryapet. The Kalpana Enterprise in  Suryapet is selling solar fans, Solar lanterns and related equipments.  The Municipal Commissioner mobilized 1000 people to purchase solar utilities and material which would be  worth of Rs.2.5 crores.  The Municipal Commissioner convinced the hotels, hostels and institutions to use solar energy.  The Municipal Commissioner issued instructions to the staff to purchase solar equipments for domestic use.  The Municipal Commissioner convinced the bankers to issue loans to individuals to purchase  solar utilities and solar invertors.  The solar invertor cost Rs.30,000/-, beneficiary share Rs.4,200/- bank loan Rs.25,800/-.  The monthly loan instalment is Rs.250/- which is equivalent to the amount saved on energy.  The Suryapet is facing four hours power cut daily during summer, to meet the power cut solar energy is more suitable and essential, it is cheaper than the diesel machine generated power.  The bankers are responding and issued loans for 160 solar invertors.

The municipality also convinced the 870 SHGs & 87 SLFs to use solar equipment.  The political parties, NGOs and the banks are cooperating to meet the target proposal.  The response from the people increasing, they are purchasing solar utilities.

Regulatory measures are taken on adoption of energy conservation and renewable energy devices :  GoAP has made it mandatory to use solar energy in all the apartments vide G.O.No.302MA, Dt.03-08-2004 & G.O.Ms.No.506MA, Dt. 03-12-2004.  The same is under implementation,  it is made mandatory for every new apartment to use energy saving devices & renewable energy.  It is made part to Building permission.

The Initiatives taken in energy conservation/renewable energy by the private sector :

  1. Suryapet Municipality initiated a programme for each employee have to purchase one solar light
  2. 15 Solar lanterns are arranged to poor people through NED CAP on subsidy.
  3. 2000 Solar lanterns are sold to staff of other departments & people in the town.
  4. 500 solar fans are purchased and installed in Suryapet town.

The NGO’s are motivating the town people about solar lighting benefits and energy conservation.  The shops are selling the solar equipment/infrastructure.   The  Maram Junior College hostel management purchased solar equipment for cooking purposes, the case of Maram Junior College is presented below.

Principal, Maram Junior College, Suryapet expressed that their management is influenced  by  the Suryapet Municipality  improving living environment initiatives.   The management decided to use the solar energy for cocking purpose.  The Junior College provided hostel facilities for 170 borders.  The Junior College approached Andhra Pradesh Grameena Vikas Bank APGVB for seeking loan.  The Bank sanctioned loan for solar cocking equipment.  The management purchased solar investor and solar cocking equipment, solar panel,  pipes and boilers etc., for Rs.67,000/-   The solar equipment is given five years warranty.  The cooks have adjusted to the  solar cocking system  preparing breakfast, lunch and dinner for the hostel borders.  The management indicated that the solar cocking process is less hazardous, time consumption is less and it is cost effective.    The solar equipment is functioning with the 25 degrees Celsius temperature, this degree of temperature is prevalent thought the year even on a rainy day.  The management saved energy, gas and it also saved amount,  see  solar cooking system fig. No.11 and fig. No. 12.

 

        Fig. No. 11 – Solar Kitchen                                      Fig. No. 12 – Solar Kitchen

 

The Municipality has enough expertise in solar energy,  head of town planning wing is responsible for installing  of solar utilities in all the new buildings, Sanitary Inspector is responsible for installing solar utilities in commercial establishments.  Municipal Engineer is responsible for implementing the solar project and installation solar equipment in municipal office and water works, etc.  The town president of all parties would be members of local expert group.  The Hon’ble MLA would chair the expert group.  All the Banks, core department such as Revenue, Commercial tax, Registration, Transport  are  involved  in solar city project for better results.

PLASTIC CONTROL

The plastic control is one of the activity initiated to improve the environment. The government has put a complete ban on the use of any type of plastic.  The Indian laws on plastic use are covered under the Environment Protection Act 1986, which has provisions for punishing the offender with five years of imprisonment, up to Rs. 1 lakh or both.  The Delhi Pollution Control Committee (DPCC) has been empowered to implement the ban and register complaint against violators.  A special inspection team has been formed by the DPCC which will initiate punishment.  With no particular deadline to enforce the ban, the Indian law on plastic use are enforced liberally.  This allows people sufficient time to quit the use of plastic bags and opt for substitutes such as jute or paper bags.

The urban areas  are facing issues eminating from the use of plastic.  The  marketing of goods, eatable items are increasing day by day in all the urban areas.  The people involved in marketing are using plastic material/carry bags to pack the goods/food items.  The customers are accustomed to caring the purchased goods/food items in plastic carry bags.  The low quality plastic carry bags used in the sale of items are thrown into the waste, they remained as an insolvent in the solid waste material.   This kind of plastic is remaining either in the street corners or in the dump yard.  It takes several decades for these plastic items to mix in the soil.  The plastic bags/material used for packing/caring food material has several side effects, hot food  (example (a) tea/coffee (b) hot food items tiffins, rice, curry and samber etc.) packed in low quality plastic bags releases dioxin.  The effects are disastrous it forms ulcer, effects on mind, generates cancer fluids.  The plastic when burnt lead to the following problems;  (1) leads to unwanted heir in women  (2) lung problem  (3)  creates obstacles in reproduction system in male and female , (4) decreases productivity.  There was no planed efforts to propagate the bad effects of the plastic, the plastic use has now become part and parcel of urban life.  The traders and people are invariably involved in using the plastic in the daily use.

The field observations show that the Suryapet Municipality is facing issues related to plastic.  The municipality made conscious effect to control the  daily use of plastic.  The municipality convinced the school management and organized sensitization classes for the students.  The children are thought to refuse plastic products/bags and convinced them to use alternative material cloth bags, paper bags,  leaf etc.  The Kirana Merchants are convinced to lesson the price of goods if the purchaser brings his own bag to carry the products.   The tiffin hotels are convinced to reduce Rs. Two on each item if the purchaser brings his own carrier box/bag to carry the food items.  The municipality convinced hotel management to place banner in all the hotels to propagate the message.  The Udipi Hotel in Suryapet introduced banana leaf instead of a plastic sheet, now other hotels are also using of leaves.  The shop keepers are procuring banana leaves from Rajhumundry.  The Municipality brought 2000 banana  plants from kadiyam nursery and distributed to the households with a condition to use the leaves.

The municipality made two important efforts (1)  control the use of low qualaity plastic  (2) promote alternatives to plastic.  In the first method municipality introduced ban on selling the plastic bags less than 20 microns.   The municipality formed special team for vigilance and control on sale and use of plastic in the municipality.  The teams raided the market and identified shops selling banned plastic bags, identified the persons using plastic bags especially the street vendors, fruit merchants and vegetable venders etc.  The municipality  collected fines from the users of banned plastic products.  The municipality collected a lakh of Rupees as fine from various salesmen.  In the process Municipal Commissioner was pressurized and influenced not to be harsh in collecting fines from salesman.  The municipality received resentment from the traders but the municipality was firm on banning the sale of plastic carry bags.   The Suryapet Municipality encouraged SHGs to prepare self employment projects to recycle the plastic and producing granules by using machinery. The SGHs are responding to the proposal.

In the second aspect municipality organized jute bag making & paper bag making training programme under Skill Training for Employment Promotion for Urban Poor STEPUP to the SHG members.  The municipality is making efforts to procure the jute bag making machinery for the trained candidates and submitted proposals under the Community Participation Fund CPF.  The municipality also pooled cotton bags and freely distributed them to facilitate people to use them regularly and avoid use of the banned plastic bags/products.

The Lions Club organized classes and  educated children in 30  schools on plastic eradication, the role of municipality, citizens and student in plastic eradication.  As part of campaign the Lions Club organized essay writing competition for students on the topic “plastic pollution control”.    The best essays five were selected among the competition and prizes were awarded on 26-01-2012.  This process facilitated the students to think deeply, understand the subject and carry the message forward, bring changes in their attitude towards use of plastic. The caterers in Suryapet expressed that they are influenced by the efforts made by the municipality in plastic control.  They have stopped using the plastic cups,  plastic papers and  plastic plates in their catering service.

The Municipal Chairperson expressed that the above process minimized the plastic on roads, street corners and in drains.  The observations in Suryapet indicated that the 50% of plastic usage has decreased, consequently the plastic waste also reduced.  The plastic waste is collected to a major extent and the collected waste is sold in the market.  The above efforts have brought down the damages caused by the plastic in Suryapet.  The plastic free lanes are contributing to the improvement of the living environment.

The municipality has faced  limitations in the process of reducing plastic usage The business promoters are still encouraging the use of plastic bags for promoting sales although it is  banned.    The Municipal Commissioner suggested that the cost of plastic carry bags should be increased to discourage traders to use them. The customers should also strictly discourage the use of banned plastic bags.

SOLID WASTE MANAGEMENT

The quality of the living environment in urban areas is based on the effective management of solid waste.  The local bodies have primary duty of collecting  and disposing solid waste.    The waste was disposed in bins located in streets, the waste  stagnated in bins for several hours/days emanating small  and odor.  The waste bins are  source of contamination and a source of germinating diseases.  The field conditions in Suryapet show us that the city is located on flat surface.  The drain water movement is slow on the flat surface, drain with solid waste particles further slowed down the sullage movement.  In some of the lanes sullage is stagnated, these problems are perennial in Suryapet Municipality.  In view of the circumstances the waste management in Suryapet  is a sensitive activity.  The Municipal Commissioner introduced new method of collection and disposal of solid waste in Suryapet.

The municipality purchased new site for 8.5 Acres of land for dumping yard of solid waste, the site is located at a distance of 8.5 kms from Suryapet.   The municipality built three sheds on the site, the first shed is used for processing the dry waste, second and third sheds are used for processing wet waste and preparation vermi compost.  The municipality is using 15 tractors and four autos, these vehicles are allotted routes and time covering all the wards in the municipality.  The vehicles  daily collect waste and are making two trips per day to the dump yard to dispose the waste.  The municipality engaged 268 women workers, (93 municipal workers, 175 outsourced/SHG workers) in the management of solid waste.

Municipal Chairman, Suryapet Municipality expressed that the Suryapet Municipality is located on flat surface, open drain are filled with solid waste/Plastic particles, the drain flow slowed down.  The former Municipal Commissioner Sri  Khader Saheb introduced segregation of solid waste at source into dry waste and wet waste.  Municipal Chairman on his own distributed 5000 baskets free of cost to the households in Suryapet to facilitate segregation of wet waste and dry waste and avoid disposal of waste on street corners.

The households are educated to segregate the waste at source, the households are segregating solid waste into wet waste and dry waste.  The wet waste consists of kitchen waste, food waste and perishable items.  The dry waste consists of paper, plastic, cardboard, dust, debris and other non perishable items.  The municipality fixed time for the municipal vehicle movement in each lane/ward for collecting the waste, accordingly vehicles covered the lanes, people are handling over the two waste baskets to the municipal vehicle.  The municipal vehicle are receiving the two baskets of separated dry waste and wet waste from households, unloading then and returned the baskets.  The vehicles are transporting the waste and disposing  the dry waste and wet waste at the municipal dump yard.  The households have learnt the new method of disposing the waste and cooperating with the municipality.  The old practice of disposing the waste in  municipal dust bin located in streets was discontinued, the dust bins are removed in Suryapet Municipality.   The segregation of waste at source minimized the problems caused by solid waste in the drains.

The municipality daily collected approximately 60 tons of waste and disposed at the dump yard.  The municipality engaged nine workers posted them at the dump yard to segregate the dry waste into four different categories viz., (1) paper, (2) cardboard, (3) plastic bottles, (4) plastic covers see Fig. No. 13, 14 and 15.   The municipality called tenders monthly

 

Fig. No. 13 – Dry Waste                                         Fig. No. 14 – Segregation of Dry Waste

from the purchasers and sold the four categories of waste. The approximate price received by the municipality for category wise waste is as follows :   (1)  Paper is packed into 50 Kgs., bundles sold at  Rs.3/- per kg., see Fig. No. 16, (2) Cardboard/carton boxes sold at Rs.4.50 per kg., (3) Plastic bottles sold at Rs.4.00 per kg., (4) Plastic covers sold at Rs.3.50 per kg.  The unused solid waste is approximately 20%, it is disposed in the open dump yard.  The municipality entered into contract for 20 years with Hemashree Power Project to produce power out of the remaining unused solid waste.  The project is in process of establishment.

 

Fig. No. 15 – Separated Dry Waste                             Fig. No. 16 – Paper Bundles (50 kg.)

The Suryapet Municipality is collecting the wet waste, the wet waste is dumped at the yard see Fig. No. 17 and 18.   The municipality is using two sheds for processing wet waste into the compost manure.  The wet waste is processed, pulverized in the machine and digested, the processed/digested wet waste is put in compost beds  located in the shed see Fig. 19. The wet waste is converted into  manure by using earth warms.  The water is sprinkled on the wet waste beds, the warms convert the wet waste into manure in the compost process.  The process is completed in approximately 45 days time, the process is fast in summer season and it is slow in

 

Fig. No. 17 – Wet Waste at Dump Yard                     Fig. No. 18 –  Wet Waste at Dump Yard

rainy season.  The municipality is producing three tons of wermi compost manure every month see Fig. No. 20.  The vermi compost is sold at Rs.5.00 per kg. in the local market.

The municipality initiated sensitization classes  on solid waste management in 26 schools in Suryapet.  These classes focused on the role of people in solid waste management, cleanliness and health, adapting the new method of solid waste management.  The role of individuals in up keeping the living environment.   The students are explained about the  damages caused by solid waste, the scope of recycling waste, generating  wealth out of waste,  managing solid waste, income out of waste and improving the living environment.  The students are convinced to pool dry waste like paper, plastic bottles/paper, plastic covers and sell them monthly, gain income and buy a book.   These initiations had its own impact on the children and the parents in solid waste management in Suryapet.

The field observations indicate that the people in Suryapet adopted to the new practice in disposing solid waste.  The people are sensitized and are sensitively segregating the solid waste at source  and cooperating with the municipality to dispose the solid waste.  The  political parties, NGOs and civil societies have facilitated to the adopting new system of solid waste management in Suryapet.  The new practice of solid waste disposal has avoided waste stagnation on streets.  The removal of dust bins minimised the health hazards existed for several years.  The new practice of waste management contributed for improving the living environment in Suryapet Municipality.

 

Fig. No. 19 – Composting Wet Waste                         Fig. No. 20 – Compost Mannnure

BIO-ERADICATION OF MOSQUITOES

Mosquito control is one of the initiative in improving the living environment in Suryapet. Mosquitoes are generally considered annoying and they transmit diseases   such as dengue, yellow, malaria and filariasis etc.  There have been a variety of human efforts to eradicate or reduce the mosquitoes.  The mosquito control reduces mosquitoes to minimize   their damage to human health,  economies, and enjoyment.  The mosquito control is a vital public-health practice throughout the world and especially in the tropics because mosquitoes spread diseases.  The mosquito-control-operations are targeted against three different problems, 1) Nuisance mosquitoes bother people around homes or in parks and recreational areas,   2) Economically important mosquitoes reduce real estate values, adversely affect tourism and related business interests and negatively  impact live stock or poultry production, 3) Public health is damaged when mosquitoes are vectors or transmitters  or infectious disease.  The mosquitoes are controlled by using the following methods.

General methods

The method of mosquito control is selected based on the situation.  The methods of control viz., source reduction, bio-control, larviciding (control of larvae) or  adulticiding (control of adults) etc.  The techniques are accomplished using habitat modification, pesticide, biological-control agents, and trapping etc.  Since many mosquitoes breed in standing water, source reduction can be  simple by draining water stagnating around the home.

Bio-control

“Bio-control” is the  biological method of reducing the mosquitoes.  There are several types of biological control including the direct introduction of parasites, pathogens and predators to target mosquitoes.    The effective bio-control agents include predatory fish that feed on mosquito larvae such as mosquito fish (Gambusia).

Oil drip 

The oil drop method is used, in this method oil is dropped on the surface of water/sullage pools.  The oil forms thin layer on top of the surface and prevents mosquito breeding in two ways (1) mosquito larvae in the water cannot penetrate the oil film with their breathing tube, and so drown and die,  (2  adult mosquitoes do not lay eggs on the  surface of oiled water.

            Suryapet Municipality has peculiar geographical conditions.   The houses are constantly using water, the sullage from the houses are entering into the open drains.  The sullage flow in the flat drain is slow,  the sullage constantly standing in different locations.  The stagnated sullage is an ideal ground for breeding mosquitoes.  The mosquitoes are constantly breading, the mosquitoes caused menace, the mosquitoes ménace was prevalent in Suryapet through out year.   The people used mosquito coils and other repellents to control the effects of mosquitoes.  The mosquitoes survived on human blood, causing different kinds of infections viz., malaria, yellow, dengue and fileria etc.  These injections are proved costly, the injected suffered in multiple ways viz.,  sickness developed, hospitalized, loss of productive man days.  The mosquito affects on children are more in the form of loss of education and energy etc.

The municipalities which have faced the problems of mosquitoes adopted spraying poisonous chemical/gases to eliminate them.  The Supreme Court issued directions to ban spraying chemical to control mosquitoes.  In view of the Supreme Court decisions municipality stopped spraying chemicals in municipal wards.  The people also objected to the practice of spraying chemicals in the municipal areas.  The municipality had to search alternate method for controlling mosquitoes menace, Suryapet Municipality selected Bio-Eradication method to control mosquitoes.  The Municipal Commissioner deeply studied the method of Bio-Eradication of mosquitoes and adopted the process in the municipality.  The Bio-Eradication method is adopted with the following objectives.    (1) Eradication of mosquitoes in a biological way, (2) Protecting the environment by arresting poisonous gases by preventing the use of coils and mosquito killing chemicals, etc.,  (3)  Controlling of mosquito related deceases and ensuring the health  and fitness among the people, 4) Valuable money of people was  saved by protecting them from diseases.

The Municipal Commissioner has prepared the Gambusia Fish proposal to eradicate mosquitoes and placed the proposal before the Municipal Council.  The Council accepted the proposal and sanctioned Rs.10,000/- from municipal fund.  The municipal council  cooperated in execution of the proposal.  The municipality used the sanctioned amount and purchased the Gambusia Fish from Fisheries Department at Rajender Nagar, Hyderabad/Medchal, R.R. Dist., Andhra Pradesh.  The Fish is brought in plastic bags packed in  cardboard cartons see Fig. No. 21.   The cartons are brought in a jeep to the Suryapet municipality.  The fish size is less than a centimeter,  fish brought to Suryapet was released  in the identified areas, water/sullage pools, see Fig. No. 22.  The fish servived in the pools  on its own by consuming mosquito larva. The sanitary staff observed the fish constantly and monitored the  bio-eradication of mosquitoes.  The sanitary staff constantly collected the public opinion on movement of mosquitoes and the effects of mosquitoes from different words and take necessary steps to intensify mosquito control activity, see Fig. No. 23.  The municipality also using the oil drop method  in some of the lanes to control mosquitoes where sullage stagnation is more.

Fig. No. 21 – Gambusia Fish                                      Fig. No. 22 – Gambusia Fish into Pools

The municipality also advocated the use of Addasaram plant, the Addasaram leaf works as a repellent to the mosquito.  The municipality has supplied 5000 Addasaram Plants to the houses in the words where mosquito menace is more.  The people received the plants and planted them in their houses see Fig. No. 24.   The plants have  given relief from the mosquito problems.  The water logging is constant in some of the areas in Suryapet Municipality.   The municipality also advocated the use of Banana plants in water logging areas.  The Banana plants have the nature of absorbing moisture in the soil and reducing wetness in the soil   The municipality supplied 2000 Banana plants, the residents received them and planted in their premises.  The Banana plants minimized moisture in the soil and restricted the mosquito breeding in these areas.

The municipal notes indicated that (1)  In the initial days after leaving of Gambusia fish   people expressed that 40% of mosquitoes have decreased, (2) After 6 months of the initiative the Vruksha Yagnam (NGO) has intimated that 90% of mosquitoes have decreased compared to the year 2010,  (3) The Dengue cases were reported only 15 during the 2011 year, compared to 100 cases during  2010  year (saved the valuable money  and resource of people) 4) The local shop owners reported that sales of mosquito coils,  smoke bolls has been considerably decreased.    The above are the indicators of decrease in mosquito population in Suryapet.

The observation in the Suryapet town indicates the municipal effort, field staff supervision, people’s cooperation, together minimized mosquito menace.  TheBio-Eradication of mosquitoes method proved to be effective in Suryapet. The people are relieved  from the mosquitoes menace.  These measures are contributing to the improvement of the living environment in Suryapet Municipality.

KITCHEN GARDEN  

Kitchen Garden is one of the initiative introduced for improving the living environment in Suryapet. The Municipal Commissioner closely monitored the implementation of Urban Poverty Alleviation UPA through Mission for Elimination of urban poverty in municipal areas  MEPMA.  The NHGs  and SLFs are  meeting regularly and  discussing social issues and economical issues and are finding solutions to the problems of urban poverty.   The population living Below Poverty Line are facing severe issues related to respiration, malnutrition, the children among them are worst sufferers.  The blood samples indicated that they have developed several deficiencies for lack of consumption of sufficient vegetables. In the process of discussion the NHGs have identified the issues viz. high incidence of anemia in women and children. The reason found are  low level of food intakes, high cost of vegetable and pulses.  The issues are brought to the notice of Municipal Commissioner for solutions.  The   municipal commissioner discussed the issues and possible solutions, he found that the high incidence of anemia can be controlled by intake of nutritious food.  Therefore he planned to focus on  developing kitchen garden  in the house by involving the BPL families.

 

   Fig. No. 23 – Monitoring Gambsia Fish                        Fig. No. 24 – Addasaram Plant

The municipal commissioner called meeting on 12-01-2011 for organizing kitchen garden and explained the process.  The municipality surveyed the seed market and selected climber variety of vegetables mainly to suit local condition i.e., shortage of space in the BPL households.  The climbers occupy less (3×4 feet) ground, and spread on the top of the roof.  The climbers viz., bottle guard, snake guard and bitter guard plants give  vegetables for a long period to meet the needs of the BPL family.  The municipality also selected two varieties of leafy vegetables to balance the deit  and supplement the food.  The Municipal Commissioner placed  target of 5000 kitchen gardens  proposal before the municipal council for budget of Rs.10,000/-.  The Municipal Council responded positively, approved kitchen garden proposal and sanctioned the budget from general fund.

The Municipal Commissioner conducted a staff meeting and explained the process of implementing the proposal.  The field staff were given responsibilities, each sanitary worker supervises 30 sweepers, each sweeper covered the given target of houses for supervising the kitchen garden activities.  In this process all the wards are  covered under the activity.  The municipality contacted Raghavendra Seeds, Suryapet and purchased vegetable seeds in bulk, packed then in small pockets containing varieties of climber seeds and leafy  vegetables, each pocket cost  was fixed for Rs.10/-  The municipality  approached the NGOs  to contribute to the kitchen garden proposal and take responsibilities  in covering the houses.  In addition to  its seeds the municipality collected donations of seeds from organizations viz., Anjali School, Bavita Junior College, Dr. Bumi Reddy etc.  The municipality decided to issue seeds to BPL families in 50 slums at 50% subsidy cost.  The seeds were distributed through the 87 SLFs covering 870 SHGs in all the wards.  The municipality also supplied vermi compost at Rs.2/- kg., to strengthen the kitchen garden.

The municipality pooled plants viz. munuga, curry leaf, amla, coconut, popaiah, plamoganite plants which contribute vitamins  and control vitamin deficiences among women and children and distributed to the households.  The beneficiaries used the kitchen garden seeds and  planted the plants which they received, some of the households purchased plants of their choice and planted them in their premises.  The people are conscious, they are using their land for vegetable production, land is optimally used for kitchen garden see Fig. No.25.  The beneficiaries have received vegetables from the kitchen garden and used them in cooking meals.  The plants are planted, they  are growing, the curry leaves, papaiah, palmaginite have given the benefits, the  munuga and amla are in the process of growing.  These plants have introduced  greenery in the localities,  the beneficiaries are taking care of the plants with interest.

The BPL families in the slum areas were covered intensively.  One of the localities effectively covered under the kitchen garden is  Indiramma Colony.  The beneficiary  Sri Yadagiri covered under kitchen garden is selected for case study presentation.

                                          Fig. No. 25   Kitchen Garden

Case-I – Sri Yadagiri :

Sri Yadagiri  resident of H.No.1156, Indiramma Colony, Suryapet.  He is working in a Local Bakery.  His family size three members, with two adults and one child.  He expressed that he was aware of kitchen garden and he is decided to make kitchen garden in his premises.  He expressed that the kitchen garden is safe, vegetables are organically produced, vegetables produced in the house are qualitatively  high and good for human health.  The municipality taken initiative and supplied him variety of vegetable seeds viz., snake gaurds, bottle gaurds, bitter gaurds and leafy vegetables.  He also procured seeds of  tamata, bringal and sown then in the kitchen garden, some of the plants had short life and some had long life.  In addition to the seeds  the municipality also supplied the plants viz., curry leaf, munuga, popaiah,  he received then and planted then in his limited space with a expectation of reaping fresh vegetables and fruits.  He used the piped water and bore water to the kitchen garden.

He received vegetables from kitchen garden during month of August to February, vegetables from his source are used twice or thrice every week by his family.   He saved amount from purchasing costly vegetables.  He expressed that the kitchen garden had impact in multiple ways viz., timely availability of vegetables, availability of quality  vegetables, consumed fresh vegetables, the vegetables minimized the nutritional deficiency.  He has expressed that he produced vegetable seeds for the next season, he is planning to cultivate kitchen garden in a organized way to gain more benefits.

The kitchen gardens have given the relief to the BPL households from the high cost of vegetables.  The extent of relief differed from house to house, it is based on the care taken by the beneficiary on kitchen garden.  The municipality and households are looking forward for organizing the kitchen garden in more useful manner.  The municipality is planning to bring more households under the coverage of kitchen garden and increase more leafy vegetables for the benefit of BPL women and children.

HERBAL PARK

            Suryapet Municipality initiated plantation on a large scale to improve the environment.  With the experience of planting multiple type of plants, the municipality further planned to take up herbal plantation.  The herbal plants have medical value, they  can play a effective role in controlling various types of ailments at low  cost.  The presence of herbal plants  increase the access and facilitate their usage to the community.

The Municipal Commissioner contacted persons having experience in herbal plants, elicited information on the nature of plants, selected important varieties of herbal plants, and the source of plants. He also convinced the plant donors to contribute herbal plants, the commissioner pooled the herbal plants.  The municipality selected Indira Park Venue for herbal plantation.  The Indira Park was misused, municipality built a compound wall around the park, cleaned the park and planted the selected varieties of herbal plants.

The list herbal plants planted in Indira Park, their name and their medical use are as follows : (1) Addasaram – used for  mosquito control,  (2) Vatti Veru – used for body purifier,  (3) Satavari – used for ladies ailmenents/old age problems,  (4) Ratnapuri chattu– used for liver activation, (5)  Vasi – used for resipiratary/tongue/speech therapy,  (6) Lenan grass – used for oil extraction, used in perfumes, (7) Parapala – used for kidney ailments/diabatic control,  (8) Vavilla – pain killer, (9) Arjuna – used for heart diseases, (10) Sabja – used to control body odor, (11) Nalleru – used for bone diseases, (12) Sallisamaria – used for bone settings, (13) Channangi

– used for cloistral control, (14) Krishna Tulasi – used for anti infection.  Apart from above list of plants the following unique and important plants are also planted viz.,  (1) Night queen flower, (2) Parijatham flower, (3) Shanka Puspa flower, (4) Macha patri (5) Devaganeru, (6) Bilwan Puja leave, see Fig. No. 26 and Fig. No.27 herbal plants in the Indira Park.

 

Fig. No. 26 –  Herbal Park                                                          Fig. No. 27 – Herbal Park

The observation of herbal park indicate that municipality provided water supply and posted Malli (gardener) to look after the park.  The municipal permission is needed to use the herbal plants.  The field observation shows that all the plants that are planted are surviving.  The presence of herbal park had given an opportunity to the  Suryapet people to know more about the types of herbals plants and their usage.  The people understood the importance of herbal plants, the park developed interest on the herbal plants.    The people are purchasing herbal plants of their choice and planting in their premises.

Impact

The above discussion indicates that the municipal issues faced in Suryapet Municipality are carefully analysed and municipality initiated suitable activities to overcome the issues.  The municipality given importance to the issues based on the intensity of the issue.  The activities initiated had their own impact.  The plantation, lake water conservation,  tap connection to the poor, energy saving, bio-eradication mosquitoes,  controlling plastic menace, improving solid waste management improved the living environment.  The kitchen gardens improved the health of poor families.  The initiatives have complimented each other, they together have  improved the quality of living in Suryapet.  The impact of the initiatives also have brought changes in the surroundings.  The Suryapet temperature use to be nearer to the hottest places of the state, now it is gradually decreasing.  Another significant observation  in the environment was minimum temperature in the state was lowest in Suryapet during the summer 2012.  This is one of the major achievements of municipality in the process of improving the living environment.

Conclusion 

The urban habitations are managed by the municipal law’s, the municipal managers have financial and physical constraints in implementing the municipal laws.   The municipalities are neglected, they have physical disorders.   The Suryapet Municipality is one of ULB in Andhra Pradesh State which had faced geological disorders agravating environmental disorders.  The urban environmental    problems, viz., neglecting tree plantation, dried water bodies,  solid waste management issues, plastic menace, mosquito menace and electricity problems. The urban environmental problems have further imbalanced the geological conditions in Suryapet. These problems given rise to environmental issues leading to climate change, shortage of rainfall and global warming etc.  In addition to the environmental problems the Suryapet has socio-economic problems of the BPL families and their low health status.  The identified problems needed solutions, the municipality planned and introduced initiatives to improve living environment.  The initiatives  viz., tree plantation, lake water conservation, pro-poor policy on water supply, plastic control, solid waste management, bio-eradication of mosquitoes, energy saving, solar energy initiatives, kitchen garden and herbal park.  The municipality involved municipal council, political parties, NGOs and citizens to deal with the environmental issues.  The each of the municipal initiatives had its own impact.

The tree plantation was initiated, municipality pooled trees from various sources and distributed to the institutions, the institutions received  and planted them.  The municipality associated the NGOs in tree plantation,  The municipality and NGOs  pooled  shade trees, medical plants, flower and nutritional plalnts  from different sources and planted through staff and the people.  The plantation made in and around Suryapet had its own impact. The plants contributed for improving the greenery, the plants brought change in the environment and contributed for improving the rainfall.  The kitchen gardens have further contributed to the greenery, the vegitables and fruits were useful to the BPL households, they are improving  the nutrition.  The results are acknowledged by the peoples representatives and the citizens.   The municipality also initiated herbal park, the park sensitized people about the medical plants, people are responding and using the knowledge, procuring herbal plants of their choice.

The municipal efforts of lake water conservation was useful in multiple ways.  The UIDSSMT scheme provided resources, bund was built on the sides of the lake to protect the lake, drain was built on the side of bund to divert the sullage, tree plantation in catchment improved rainfall, rainfall facilitated flow of more water in to the lake, the lake water is conserved.  The presence of water in the lake throughout the year improved the ground water. The fluoride content in the ground water diluted, the E coli in the ground water is in permissible limit.

The municipality truly implemented the pro-poor water policy formulated by the Govt. of Andhra Pradesh.  The agreement in UIDSSMT scheme envisaged giving more tap connections and  cover more households under the improved water supply.  The scheme provided new water pipelines in all the words, in all  the slums and backward areas.  The government lowered the fee charges of water connections to the poor families.   The poor utilized the opportunity, and are taking the household water connections,  The number of tap connections increased in Suryapet.  The tap connection improved the convenience in the houses of poor, the time spent for water collection reduced, tap water improved the health of the poor families.

The municipality responded to the municipal administration department guidelines on energy reforms and introduced the suggested reforms.  The municipality replaced sodium vapor lamps which were harmful with eco-friendly lamps, introduced electronic chokes for street lights and strictly maintained the street light time and saved energy.  The energy saved resulted in saving amount, the saved amount is used for initiating developmental activities and timely payment of staff salaries.

The municipality is using fossil electricity, this electricity has lot of environmental effects, natural resources are exhausted and causes global warming.  The electricity supply is limited, the supply is interrupting the water pumping and street lighting services.  The municipality  responded to the solar city proposal, prepared the  proposal for solar city and submitted to the Govt. of India.  The solar energy fights the global warming.   The proposal is gaining acceptance among the political parties, NGOs and citizens.  The municipality is insisting the builders to tap solar energy and use for common lighting, and water heating.  The municipality pooling its share for the solar city proposal.  The municipality convinced banks to issue loans to people for purchasing solar equipment and solar inverters.  The solar energy will save funds to the municipality, contributes to improve the living environment.

The municipality faced problems related to plastic, the use of low quality plastic had several health hazards.  The Govt. of India banned use of plastic, municipality made efforts to control the use of low quality plastic.  It has convinced the traders, the retailers and the people to avoid the use of low quality plastic carry bags.  It organized classes for the students to explain the bad effects of plastic use.  The municipality is making efforts to propagate the use of leaf, cloth, and paper instead of plastic.  The efforts made by the municipality has reduced the use of plastic to a major extent,  the efforts are continued to further progress in  minimizing the plastic use,  reduce the health hazard and improve the living environment.

The solid waste management is one of the challenging tasks faced by the municipality.  The municipality planned and introduced new system of solid waste management, it has issued two baskets to each house to segregate wet waste and dry waste source.  The municipality collected and transported the waste to the dump yard and further segregated the dry waste into plastic bottles, plastic bags, cartons, paper and sold the material to the purchases.  The wet waste is pulverized and used for preparing the compost manure.  The compost manure is sold in the market.  The new method of solid waste management facilitated dust bin free municipality.  The major portion of waste collected is recycled, only a minor portion of waste is thrown in the dump yard. The health hazards arised in the old method solid waste management have minimized, the new method contributed to the improvement of the living environment.

The municipality introduced new method of controlling mosquitoes, it has selected a Bio-Eradication method instead of chemical spraying method.  In the new process the municipality introduced Gamusia fish, the fish consumed the mosquito larva and reduced the growth of the mosquitoes.  The municipality also used oil drop method to prevent the mosquitoes to lay larva on stagnating water and the growth of larva into mosquitoes.  The number of malaria, dengue fever cases reported in the municipality minimized compared to the previous years.  The people acknowledged that the number of the mosquitoes reduced and the mosquito menace reduced.   The bio method of controlling mosquitoes have contributed to the improvement of living environment.

The new initiates introduced in solving the identified municipal issues are yielding the results.  The initiatives covered  most of the areas for improving the living environment and  they also covered all the sections of people.  However, the efforts need to be continued to sustain the results and attain further process in improving the living environment. The strategy adopted in Suryapet for improving the living environment is one of the  successful method  adoptable in all the ULBs.  The intensity of the environmental issues differed from the ULB to ULB, the state has to study the intensity of the issues and suggest affordable solutions to achieve the desired impact.

Reference :               

  1. Tree Plantation, Ref.No. 22661/2011/U1 dated 26-6-2011, Chief Conservator of Forest, Govt. of Andhra Pradesh, Hyderabad.
  2. Tree Plantation, RC No.841/2011-12/S2 dated 26-8-2011, District Forest Officer, Nalgonda, Govt. of Andhra Pradesh, Hyderabad.
  3. Tree Plantation, Lr.No. 2856/2011-12 dated 07-9-2011, St. Xaviors High School, Loyala Nagar, Suryapet, Nalgonda District, Andhra Pradesh.
  4. Lr.No.  NI/1546/2011, dated 04-7-2011, Municipal Commissioner, Suryapet Municipality, Nalgonda District, Andhra Pradesh.
  5. Suryapet UIDSSMT Proposal, RC No.26/APUFIDC/UF/09 dated 27-8-2011, Managing Director, Andhra Pradesh Urban Finance and Infrastructure Development Corporation, Hyderabad.
  6. UIDSSMT Administrative Sanction, G.O.Ms. 65, Municipal Administration, Govt. of A.P. Hyderabad, dated 17-01-2008.
  7. Water Connection Charges for BPL Families, G.O.Ms.No. 303, Municipal Administration & Urban Development (A2) Department, Govt. of A.P.  Hyderabad, dated 03-8-2004.
  8. Revised Water Connection Charges for BPL Families, G.O.Ms.No. 515, Municipal Administration & Urban Development (A1) Department, Govt. of Andhra Pradesh, Hyderabad, dated 25-7-2008.
  9. G.O.Ms.No. 506  Municipal Administration, Govt. of A.P.  Hyderabad, dated 03-12-2004
  10. Plasticless  Suryapet Pamphlet issued by the Commissioner, Suryapet Municipality.
  11. Municipal Commissioner Notes on bio-Eradication Mosquitoes in Suryapet Municipality 2011-12
  12. Installing LED Street Lighting, NEDCAP consent Lr.No.NREDCAP/LEDSL/142/2012-13/461 dated 18-04-2012.
  13. Releasing Funds for LED Street Lighting  Suryapet Municipality Lr. No.EI/13 UFCG/1365/2012 dated 08-06-2012.
  14. Guidelines for Solar Cities, Lr.No. 5/10/2010-11/ST, Ministry of New & Renewable Energy, New Delhi, dated  24-11-2011.
  15. Solar City  Suryapet Municipality proposal , MCS No.658, date 24-03-2012.
  16. Mandatory to use solar energy in all apartments G.O. No.302, dated 03-08-2004 and G.O.Ms.No.506 dated 03-12-2004, Municipal Administration, Govt. of A.P., Hyderabad.
  17. Builders are sanctioned with a condition to  use solar power, Proc. No.H/638/11/2011 dated 18-02-2012, Proceedings of the Commissioner :  Suryapet Municipality, Nalgonda District, Andhra Pradesh.
  18. Kitchen Garden proposal, MSR No. 413 dated 12-01-2011, Suryapet Municipality, Nalgonda District, A.P.
  19. Best Practices to Improve the Living Environment – Award  to Suryapet Municipality, DO No.HSMI/CPD/Best Practices, 2012,  HUDCO, New Delhi, dated 19-04-2012.
  20. Initiatives of Suryapet Municipality, Urban Connect, Vol.-II, Issue 6, Dec., 2011. Published by  APUFIDC, Hyderabad.
Evaluation of initiatives of Suryapet Municipality Reviewed by on . IMPROVEMENT OF   LIVING  ENVIRONMENT -    SURYAPET  MUNICIPALITY PROF. A. MALLA REDDY DEPUTY DIRECTOR JULY, 2012 Regional Centre for Urban and Environmental Stu IMPROVEMENT OF   LIVING  ENVIRONMENT -    SURYAPET  MUNICIPALITY PROF. A. MALLA REDDY DEPUTY DIRECTOR JULY, 2012 Regional Centre for Urban and Environmental Stu Rating: 0

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