Many people believe that caste is unchangeable and has lot of priority. They also become jingoistic on the basis of caste. But caste is dynamic, as it changes in many circumstances .They are as follows:o On migration to distant places, castes of individuals and groups use to change.o Upgradation of status of individual or groups changes their caste or forms a new caste.o Due to the state sponsorship or sponsored by the king, the castes of their dependents use to change.o After the war the castes and status of the defeated persons use to affect.o On change of occupation, the caste change used to take place.o Due to sanskritisation , castes of many people have changed according to the convenience. Also, the status of Groups and individuals were changed.o Due to the reformist movements ( both caste and Religious) changed the castes and status.o The calamities also affected the castes of the people.o Isolation of individuals and groups also allowed to change their castes.o Due to matrimonial relations of higher status man, the caste of low status used to change. In case of relation with lower status man, usually caste of women was lowered.o The en-mass amalgamation of groups also allowed caste changes.
When a small group moves with a big group and that small group unable to connect their own group, the small group merges with big group.Many people assign the origin of the caste system to the ancient chaturvarna system, where the society is divided in to four varnas namely Brahmin, Kshatriya, Vaishya and shudras. But, in early vedic period the varna was not rigid and people were allowed to change his varna as per the circumstances. Inter varna marriages were also allowed. In the later stages,the caste was also determined on the basis of their occupation, tribe, gotra , etc.,in addition to varna.In the initial stages, Brahmins were one among the many priests. Subsequently, many priests were assimilated into Brahmins,due to their supremacy in the Yagnas. This has caused many divisions among the Brahmins. Also the sanskritisation took place in many parts of India.This has amalgamated many earstwhile priesty classes of these regions into Brahmins. Thus , many Non-Brahmin communities attained the Brahmanical status. So, their caste has changed.The interchanging of caste between the Brahmins and kshatriyas were allowed in the vedic period.till the last two decades, many Branmins were reluctant to marry Niyogi( originally Kshatriyas practicing Brahmanical habits). But, in the recent past they are maintaining matrimonial relations by inter changing caste.
group of drama companies to form in to separate caste. However, we also hear that jakkula families(corrupt form of Yaksha, who is an actor in Yakshaganam) have merged with some other castes in khammam district.
Jogi (presently a caste)is a kind of a system of dedicating some individuals to the service of the God and temples from different castes. At a later stage, these people had lost the importance for various reasons and formed to a separate group after joining in to the mainstream.
Ganika (presently a caste) was a multi- talented women existing in the courts of the king from various castes. Once, the courts were vanished, the importance to these people has decreased. They have formed in to a new group.
In the ancient days , the Yadavas and Kurmis have migrated from Bihar and U.P. to Andhra Pradesh. These are separate castes in their original lands. But , in A.P there is a strong co-operation between these castes and there are some matrimonial relations among them. It may be due to the similar profession of sheep and goat rearing.In ancient days, many agricultural and warrior families have migrated from Bihar and U.P to Andhra Pradesh.These communities were formed in to new castes such as Kamma, kappu,reddy,etc.,leaving their otiginal castes.
Vaddera people were migrated from odisha( ancient kalinga and also called odra desha) from various castes for working for breaking the stones.They are physically well off. Over a period of time, they lost their contacts with original lands and formed in to a separate caste in A.P.
The upper class Kapu people from the Andhra area has been migrating to Telangana area since ages. But, they merge with the Munnuru Kapu people to have better access to society. This is a kind of a sub- caste change instead of caste change.
After the wars, the defeated armies and people scattered to many other places and merged with the other castes. For instance,after Bobbili war, yellapus in north coastal Andhra had merged with Gavaras.Gavaras mingled with velamas.Yellapus were married to velamas in this region. Bhatrajus were very prominent in the court of the kings for eulogizing the king.It was a profession involved by many castes .But, it has become a caste .over a period of time they lost their prominence,due to vanishing of kings.
The Srikrisnadevaraya has promoted the varnasankarana very cleverly by marrying from different castes and got their support. Consequently, army and other officers were become loyal.He also promoted the marriage among his loyals, finally up keeping the caste of king by others.
Presently, some upper classes are promoting the love marriages of their daughters with officers of other lower class , who have obtained the higher status recently. This would increase the numerical number of the caste and their supporters at higher levels, which is necessary in the democratic system. At a later stage, their children would be allowed to marry the upper classes or go for love marriage .( I do not want to mention the names of the castes) During the medieval period, there was socio-religious movement was brought by the Basaveshwara.It has attracted many depressed class people in south India and also countable strength of upper classes have also joined. At a later stage , the above people have formed in to a separate caste in the name of Lingayaths or Jangamas, leaving their original caste.
Similarly, the vyshnava movement was also joined by the different castes and people have formed in to a separate caste.
On observation of the following fishing communities:
Palli, Vadabalija, Bestha, Jalari, Gangawar, Gangaputra, Goondla, Vanyakulakshatriya, Vennekapu, Vannereddi, Pallikapu, Pallireddi, Neyyala, Pattapu, it is clear that they are from the different places and different social groups.But, presently, they are merged in to a social group, losing their previous identities. Similarly, many other professions like Kulala had enjoyed the high status in the society for making the beautiful pottery, which also earned the foreign currency till the british period. Many other castes would have joined in the profession for making money. Industrialization had hampered their opportunities to lose their priority.
Further, Rathakaras, charmakaras were enjoyed the highest status in the society by selling their products. Many other caste people had took up these professions.But, once they lost the prominence ,they were put in to the lower castes.
After the wars, calamities, etc. some of the urban people were pushed to forests.There they merged with the local tribes,loosing their own castes.Also some group of people resided in the forest to save themselves and being recognized as tribals.The Banjaras are the classical example for this. In Maharastra they belongs to Backward classes, where as they are belongs to scheduled tribes in Andhrapradesh.
Hence, it clearly proves that the caste has been changing in accordance with the circumstances and one shall not feel jingoistic on the basis of caste, as caste is also dynamic like religion, in various circumstances.
References:1.website of A.P B.C welfare department
.2.The wonder that was India-A.l.Basham
3.Ancient Indian history-A.c.Majumdar.
5.medieval Indian history- NCERT
6.Modern Indian History- NCERT
7.Indian History- K.Krishna Reddy
.8.Personal Observations of Author on present trends.
Andhrula charitra of telugu academy publication.