Tree plantation considerably decreases the Global warming in following way:
• Trees consume carbon dioxide and release the oxygen.
• It also releases the cool air decreasing the requirement of cooling electrical appliances.
• It also gives shadow, where there is no requirement of electrical appliances.
• It also causes rain by cooling clouds. The presence of clouds causes warming.
• It decreases the flooding and saves the resources. There by mitigates the Global Warming.
For taking up the tree plantation, Municipal Commissioners must frame an idea about the following:
1. Where plants are available?
2. Where to plant? What to plant?
3. How to safeguard? When to plant?
4. How to mobilize the money?
5. How to mobilize the people to planting?
6. What are the advantages of plants?
Plants are available in all the Government Nurseries. Municipal Commissioners must request the D.F.O, Social Forest for providing of plants. Only a few times they transport the plants by their vehicles. But most of the times Municipal Commissioners should bring plants on their vehicles.
In the recent past, the District Water Management Agency (DWMA) has reared many plants through out the state. They are able to supply the plants at free of cost or at virtually free. District Collector should be consulted for immediate action in this regard. Million Plants Day is the right opportunity to access the plants at free of cost.
In the recent past, Some NGOs are supplying the plants from the kadium nurseries or from their own nurseries. Some corporate agencies are supplying plants under corporate social responsibility. Similarly, Medicinal and Aromatic Plant Boards are able to supply the medicinal plants. In Suryapet Municipality, they accessed the medicinal plants from the Krishi Vignana Kendra(KVK), Gaddipalli and excessive seeds and seedlings from the philanthropic persons.
Plantation can be taken up in the following places and their advantages are as follows:
• Households: Though households do not have more space for plantation, but it gives the assurance for sustainability of plants. In suryapet Municipality the same strategy is followed and successfully sustained the plants. Another important aspect to remember is economic value of the plant. The concept of Usufruct is very much essential, which means the tree should be useful. In suryapet municipality people were given the teak, drumstick, curry leaves, fruit bearing and medicinal plants and reaped good sustainability. The concept of usufruct gives the ownership to the household on the plant.
• Along the roads: tree plantation can be taken up along the roads. Trees suck the CO2 emitted by the vehicles. They also absorb the smoke particles. Here shade-giving trees are the better option. Since it also protect the bituminous surface of road. Thus global warming is reduced. It also reduces the sound pollution. The best example of plantation in the dividers is siddhipet. They have planted saplings for 3 to 4 kilometers of length and nurturing with a lot of care. Similarly, on the national Highway no.7, there are many greenbelts, giving very cool breeze even during summer mornings. It also has the plantation between dividers, avoiding unnecessary light on the eyes of drivers. In Bhainsa , a doctor and business people have taken initiative to establish a mini park beside the road. The same is emulated by more than 75 members in establishing the mini parks in front of their houses, after experiencing the advantages.
• Schools, Hospitals, Public Offices: Some of these places have ample open places and most of them have compound walls for protection. In this case, there would be more possibility of sustenance of trees. It also provides required oxygen to schoolchildren. It improves their activeness. In case of hospital, Oxygen cures the diseases within short time. In case of public Offices staff works more efficiently. It also provides shade. It reduces the intensity of heat. In Suryapet, it was observed that one pipal tree has been existing in MAM School. Though a Government school, there are brilliant students. It may be due the presence of that tree, as it is one of the highest oxygen releasing trees.
• In case of market committees, huge spaces are available. Along the available space, tree plantation must be taken up. It not only provides air but also provide shade to the animals, which are tied to carts, brought by farmers. In absence of trees these animals are put to more trouble due to heat. Even so many poor farmers and their animals are prone to sunstrokes. In Suryapet the plantation in the taken up in the new market committee before shifting their yard. The staff under the leadership of the secretary has protected the plants.
• Burial grounds: Burial grounds of Hindus usually located on the riverbanks or the bank of water sources. Usually the high emissions in burial are absorbed by water to a few extents. We have to take care of rest of emissions. There should be a massive plantation in the burial ground, so as to suck the huge emissions.
• Muslims and Christians cremate the dead body. This cremation generally allows the slow release of Green house gases from the dead body that is cremated. Recently, an Australian scientist has proposed to plant a tree over the cremated dead body. The planted tree consumes the CO2, etc emitted from the body and do not allow the emission of gases into atmosphere. Tree also consumes nutrients from the body. It reduces the release of chemicals. In olden days, people had the habit of planting the flowering plant over the cremated dead body. In Suryapet, one muslim graveyard was thoroughly planted.
• My point is very clear that trees in large scale must be planted in the cremation grounds and burial grounds as well.
• Plantation at the burial ground is one time business. But, at the crematory ground, plants must be added as and when dead body added. Maintenance of the crematory grounds must be motivated to plant a flowering plant on the cremated dead body. The good habit must sustain as it helps in tiding over the Global Warming.
• Seacoast: There is ample opportunity of planting on the seacoast. Trees play a vital role in controlling the cyclones, destruction due to cyclones and tides. Mangroves, casuarinas and coconut trees are viable options. Coconut tree even gives nut and provide employment to some people and cut down the prices of coconut and tender coconut water.
• Another important point worth mentioning is that Municipal Commissioners should not allow any person to make habitation with in 200 meters of sea coast. In Pondchery, the Govt. ensured the construction of houses after 200 meters to fisherman community and other community, who had lost houses in the Tsunami. It not only saves the valuable human lives but also allows the administrators to take up plantation, which further decrease the intensity of cyclones and Global Warming.
• Riverbanks also provide vast opportunity for plantation. Here Municipal Commissioners must take up shade giving trees such as pipal, Sal, etc. The advantages of taking up such trees on the river bank is that trees do not allow the vaporization of water, it decreases the run off speed of water, it can increase the biological oxygen demand and protect aquatic organisms. In such way bio diversity is protected. These huge trees allow rains on the riverbanks, which do not cause floods, but water is made available to down stream for various purposes.
• Tank bunds can be also can be provided with the greenery. It should be fed with the small plants instead of huge plants. The advantages are similar with river banks plantation.
• There is availability of plenty of open spaces in many Municipalities. These are kept fallow. Municipal Commissioners can take up plantation, even in commercial scale. Taking up teak plantation or neem plantation yields substantial incomes, in addition to reduction in GHG’s.
o Other alternative of utilizing the Municipal open spaces is conversion of open spaces into parks. Fortunately, Government is releasing huge amounts for establishing the parks. Municipal Commissioners must make use of above funds. Even in Budget also, there is provision for allocation of funds for establishment of parks. There is also a provision for establishment of parks in IHSDP scheme.
In lieu of resources, Municipalities are unable to establish parks, where funds from Government are not allocated. I would like to suggest establishment of the parks either in Boot System. (Built, operate, own and Transfer) or in sharing basis. It reduces the burden on salaries. It also saves the amounts on capital cost. However, plantation is the perennial boon to reduce the GHG emission.
• While approving the plan of lay out, Municipal Commissioner must see that open space must be provided at one space, so as to take up plantation or park. Other wise, they are prone to encroachments. One more advantage of open space at single place is that more number of trees and plants at single place attract the different organism.In suryapet, micro-climates are created at some places increased the butterflies, honeybees, birds and other organisms.
• In the Industrial towns, Municipal Commissioners must protect the land provided for Green belt and must take up the plantation immediately. There is ample opportunity to establish the plantation in the open spaces of industry. The advantage of plantation in industry is that they entrap the pollutants.
• Dumping yard is a place, where Municipal Commissioner has to necessarily take up the plantation. It is mandatory under SWM Rules – 2000. It entraps the GHG emissions, which are emitted from the Garbage. Shade giving trees must be preferred here.
• In some town there are plenty of open spaces for temples. In that open spaces, plantation must be taken up. For that plantation, donations can be also asked from philanthropically persons.
I had seen the collection of donations for maintenance of plants at kotappakonda in Guntur District, which is a famous Temple town of lord Shiva. Names of doners are scribed on the slate and placed at the tree. Municipality can replicate such system.
• Other important intervention can be establishment of mini parks along the road boundary. On motivation, people took up Mini Park in an enclosure. This allows the water percolation. Otherwise pavements are being made on road boundary in bigger town. But unfortunately they are neither useful for walkers nor useful for plantation. Small plants, climbers can be planted in these mini parks.
• HILLS: Only some plants such as pipal, custard apple can be sustain on the hills, if the earth is not more. The hill plantation have many advantages such as avoiding the erosion of hill, florosis, land sliding, heat waves, etc.
• Vegetable Plantation
In olden days every household use to grow vegetable in their backyard. Due to urbanization, the situation has been changed a lot. Even though there is ample choice to grow the vegetable plants.
Where the space availability is less and house is a pucca building there the climbers such as (gourd, bitter gourd, ribbed gourd, and beans) can be propagated. Just tying a wire or rope to the top of the house would lead the climbers easily climbs to the top. With in a span of 2 months, it starts giving the yield. Climbers can be planted on four sides of the building. This activity will fetch about 200/- to 300/- per month on average.
Where little more space is available, households can take up the plantation of leafy vegetables.
After plantation some of the plants sustain one to two years, yielding 100 rupees per month. Planting of leafy vegetable yields perennial income of not less than 50/- a month. Households should not let it out to wholesalers; instead they can sell it to local people at cheaper prices. It improves the unity among the people of locality.
In suryapet the seeds were given to the SHG members at free of cost. It has increased the number of kitchen gardens.
Definitely it will yield a lot of income if marketing facilities are provided. But even in absence of marketing facilities 3 plants are extremely useful for women.
a. Aleovera is plants grown even in fallow lands. There is no need of taking much care. This works as moisturizer and decreases expenditure on of cosmetics. On administering to scalp, it cures the dandruff. It is also useful for diabetes patients also.
b. Shatavari is also easily grown root plant extremely useful for women. Its uses are innumerable to enlist but some important uses are below.
1. Useful for lactating women
2. Supports the pregnant women
3. Reduces the anxiety
4. Cures the post – delivery problems
5. Prepares the women to pregnancy.
6. Prevent the aging and related problems.
c. Mint plant is also easily spread plant. It is useful in digestion and fighting the cold and cough.
Advantage of vegetable plantation:
1. Improves the income and reduce the poverty of poor house holds.
2. Fresh and nutritious food is available and improves health.
3. Climbers provide cool atmosphere in the house reducing energy charges.
4. If every body takes up vegetable plantation, more food is produced and food is assured making it easily available and cheaper.
5. It also contributes to curtailing the Global Warming.
6. Fresh air would be available in surroundings.
7. Leafy vegetables can solve the problem of anemia and other nutritional problems.
8. Medicinal plants decrease the expenditure on medicines and cosmetics
9. Water harvesting use to take place and all the advantages of Greenery also realize with it.
10. Medicinal plants have a greater say in increasing percapita income, average life expectancy. It decreases Infant Mortality, Mother Mortality Rate and improve health indices.
11. Other poor people can be provided food from excessive produce and it paves way for dependent life, which gives immense pleasure.
Among the fruit trees Guava, Mango, Lemon is the useful varieties. In present days dwarf varieties are also available in the market. It can generate a lot of income for Self Help Group Women.
Interestingly, value added products can be generated from lemon and mango. Lemonade can be generated from lemon fruit. It can be served to people in summer season. Such type of activities generates adequate income to push them from poverty.
Many fallow lands, open spaces, parks and Dumping yards are available at the disposal of municipal authorities. These lands can be assigned, without altering ownership, to Self Help Groups for growing medicinal plants and fruit trees. This improver Greenery and generate income for both municipality and SHG’s. Excessively available land in Dumping yard can be the best opportunity for growing the medicinal plants, vegetables, fruit trees or garden. The composted material can be best organic manure in this regard. However, it is mandatory to grow plants and trees in the Dumping Yard, as per SWM – 2000 Rules.
Advantage of trees and plants:
1. It sucks the CO2 from the atmosphere for preparation of its food and releases the O2. Thus prevents the Global Warming.
2. If cools the clouds and causes the rains. Otherwise, clouds cause Warming. Drought situations also causes Warming by using energy excessively
3. It uses the sunlight and synthesizes its food. Otherwise warming would have too much. It also uses UV-radiation. Other wise GHG emission would have more by preparing the ozone naturally.
4. It upkeeps a lot of water with in and around the tree. Otherwise, vaporization would have more, consequently warming too.
5. It prevents the soil erosion and keeps the soil potent to rear further plantation.
6. It also prevents the floods. Loss of trees in hill areas causes floods in plains. Floods damage the infrastructure, trees, plants, crops and soil. Hence preventing floods means preventing the Global Warming.
7. A forest floor of leaves and decaying wood acts as a giant sponge by absorbing, filtering and holding water.
8. It sheds the leaves and strengthens the soil for further plantation.
9. It prevents the sound pollution and air pollution by dust. Other wise, it warms.
10. It gives the shade to so many people. Other wise those people are forced to use the electricity for cooling.
11. It gives shade to buildings and reduces the power bills and Global Warming.
12. Trees like neem are used for various purposes. It sticks are used as toothbrush is also used as medicine. Artificial production of these items causes Global Warming by using all the items excessively.
13. Fruits, nuts, leaf etc. of some plants has medicinal properties. Unknowingly some diseases are cured by consumption of them.
Some plants like Tulsi, Neem, Mint and flowers release the aromatic substances. Those plants cure many diseases unknowingly. Otherwise, there would have need of manufacturing of many medicines, causing a lot of energy.
14. Some plans like Aleovera, turmeric is used as a cosmetics. Other wise many cosmetics would have need to be prepared.
15. Plants on the seacoast prevent the worst effects of cyclone.
Safe guards: safe guarding is the crucial issue in the process of sustaining of plants. administrator has to give priority plant the saplings in the protected areas such as houses, schools, offices ,grave yards,etc.tree guards must be employed to safe guard the saplings planted on road side and in open spaces. In case of non availability of money,thorn bearing plants may be arraged around the sapling.Some times R&B department is kind enough to provide the drums which can be used as treeguard.
When to plant: usually rainy periodwith a emphasis on july and august is the convenient time to take up the plantation. But it can be taken up even up to December. Small plants such as shrubs, medicinal plants and kitchen gardens can be taken up to February. The same strategy is used in suryapet municipality and reaped very good results.
Mobilization of money: money can be spent out of the municipal general funds earmarked for greenery and parks. There are many philanthropic organizations to take up the plantation on their own. Such organizations can be tapped. Many corporate companies also takes up the tree plantation under corporate social responsibility. Even Banks also takes up the plantation under the same. So, these funds can be utilized.
Mobilization of people: It is very vital to mobilize the people and make them ready for the plantation is very crucial aspect. N.S.S., N.C.C, Green corps are very crucial in helping out in plantation. S.H.Gs can be involved in case of household plantation. Involving all the important dignitaries would make the things simpler and easier in many ways. A meeting explaining the importance of plants and planning for plantation plays very vital role. A day must be earmarked to that effect and more number of people should be involved.